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超好应用语音学资料

4. Voicing and consonants

Period: 1st

Aim: to learn the functions of larynx in speech; to know the relation between respiration and voicing; to learn how

to articulate plosives; to know about the differences between fortis and lenis.

Difficult Point: respiration and voicing

Teaching Procedure:

4.1 The larynx

1. Anatomy:

The larynx is in the neck; it has several parts and the main structure is made of two cartilages, which are hollow and are attached to the top of the trachea.

Inside the “box” made by these two cartilages are the vocal folds, two thick flaps of muscles. At the front the vocal folds are joined together and fixed to the inside of the thyroid cartilage. At the back they are attached to a pair of small cartilages called arytenoid cartilages.

Arytenoid cartilages are attached to the top of the cricoid cartilage but they can move so as to move the vocal folds apart or together. The term glottis is used to refer to the opening between the vocal folds.

2. Four different states of the glottis

1) Wide apart:

The vocal folds are wide apart for normal breathing and usually during voiceless consonants. p, f, s

2) Narrow glottis

The sound is not very different from a whispered vowel. It is called a voiceless glottal fricative. ah, ah, ah, ah

3) Position for vocal fold vibration

When the edges of the vocal folds are touching each other, or nearly touching, air passing through the glottis will usually cause vibration.

4) Vocal folds tightly closed

The vocal folds can be firmly pressed together so that air cannot pass between them. When this happens in speech we call it a glottal stop or glottal plosive. a? a? a?

Glotalization

Na?ture ca?tching ri?ches //// a?ctor pe?trol ma?t foo?tball

4.2 Respiration and voicing

1. How is air moved into and out of the lung?

The lungs are contained within the rib cage. If the rib cage is lifted upwards and outwards there is more space in the chest for the lungs and they expand, with the result that they take in more air. If we allow the rib cage to return

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