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铅酸蓄电池学术论文(英文版)

mm ELSEVIER Journalof PowerSources59 (1996) 199-207 ,mnnnAL nl Lead/acid battery technology J.E. Manders a, L.T. Lam b, K. Peters c, R.D. Prengaman d, E.M. Val~:~dote aPasminco Limited, PC)Box 1291(,,Melbourne. Vic. 3001, Australia b CSIRO, Division of Minerals, PO Box 124, Port Melbourne, Vic. 3207, Australia ¢ Battery Design and Manufacturing Services, Glen Bank, Broadoak Park, Worsley,Manchester, M28 4NS, UK d Research and Development. RSR Corporation, i 111 W. Mockingbird Lane, Dallas, TX7524Z USA e Cominco Ltd., Product Technology Centre, Mississauga. Ont. LSK IB4. Canada Received 17 November1995;accepted 10January 1996 Abstract Following the schedule of previous Asian Battery Conferences. the Proceedings closed with an expert panel of battery scientists and technologists who answered questions put by the assembled delegates. The subjects under consideration were as follows. Grid alloys: g r i n structure of lead-calcium and lead-calcium-tin alloys; dross problems; control of calcium content; east-on-strap; terminal-post attach-; porosity/acid-wicking problems; effect of silver; lead--cadmiumalloys. Lea@ oxide: a-PbO:[3-PbO ratio; influence on plate-processing and battery performance. Paste-mixing and curing: influence of amorphous material. Plate formation: black/powdery plates; effect of acid concentration; charge level. Valve.regulated batteries: mass balances; grid thickness; shelf life. Battery charging: overcharge effects; fast charging; temperature effects; string configurations; sodium sulfate additive. Keywords: Lead/acidbatteries;Gridalloys;Leadyoxide;Pastemixing:Curing:Formation; Valve-regulatedbatteries;Charging 1. Grid alloys 1.1. Question: What methods produce fine-grained leadcalcium and lead-calcium-tin alloy grids? fine grains. The finer grains are obtained at any calcium or tin content. Higher aluminiumcontents give finer-grain structures. Finer grains produced by aluminium additions, however, do not seem to have the same adverse effects as finer grains produced by higher calcium contents. R.D. PRENGAMAN !. 1.1. Increase the calcium content 1.1.3. Decrease the mould temperature a n d solidify rapidly The additional calcium (up to ~ 0.10 wt.%) increases the number of grain boundaries and inter-dendritic areas where the cellular precipitation reaction takes place. Above 0.10 wt.% Ca, precipitation of primary Pb3Ca from the melt decreases the initial as-cast grain size. These primary particles serve as sites for the further initiation of fine grains. Calcium contents above 0.08 wt.% will cause increased corrosion and reduction of the mechanical properties of the final aged material. The reduced mechanical properties, along with the finer grain size, can result in increased grid growth during battery service. 1.1.2. A d d aluminium Colder moulds give more areas to initiate nuc

leation. The rapid solidification decreases the inter-dendmic spacing and provides more areas for initiationof the precipitation reaction. 1.1.

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