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2.Probing young drinking water biofilms with hard and soft particles

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waterresearch43(2009)117–126

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Probingyoungdrinkingwaterbio lmswithhardandsoftparticles

TonyParisa,b,1,SalaheddineSkali-Lamia,Jean-ClaudeBlockb,*

´tiqueetdeMe´caniqueThe´oriqueetApplique´e(LEMTA),UMR7563,Nancy-University,CNRS,2avenuedelaForeLaboratoired’Energe tde

`s-Nancy,FranceHaye,BP160,54504Vandoeuvre-le

b

LaboratoiredeChimiePhysiqueetMicrobiologiepourl’Environnement(LCPME),UMR7564,Nancy-University,CNRS,405ruede

`s-Nancy,FranceVandoeuvre,54600Villers-le

a

articleinfo

Articlehistory:Received31July2008Receivedinrevisedform20September2008Accepted7October2008

Publishedonline18October2008Keywords:Bio lmDrinkingwaterParticlesAccumulationWallshearrate

abstract

Theaimofourstudywastoinvestigate,throughtheuseofsoft(Escherichiacoli)andhard(polystyrenemicrospheres)particles,thedistributionandpersistenceofallochthonousparticlesinoculatedindrinkingwater owchambers.Bio lmswereallowedtogrowfor7–10monthsintapwaterfromNancy’sdrinkingwaternetworkandwerecomposedofbacterialaggregatesand lamentousfungi.Bothmodelparticlesadheredalmostexclu-sivelyonthebio lms(i.e.onthebacterialaggregatesandonthe lamentousstructures)andnotdirectlyontheuncolonizedwalls(glassorPlexiglas).Bio lmage(i.e.bacterialdensityandbio lmproperties)andconvective-diffusionwerefoundtogovernparticleaccumulation:olderbio lmsandhigherwallshearratesbothincreasedthevelocityandtheamountofparticledepositiononthebio lm.Persistenceofthepolystyreneparticleswasmeasuredoveratwo-monthperiodafterinoculation.Accumulationamountswerefoundtobeverydifferentbetweenhardandsoftparticlesasonly0.03&ofthesoftparticlesinoculatedaccumulatedinthebio lmagainst0.3–0.8%forhardparticles.

ª2008ElsevierLtd.Allrightsreserved.

1.Introduction

Drinkingwaternetworkscanberegardedasbiologicalreactors

whichhostawidevarietyofmicroorganisms(bacteria,protozoa,fungi,etc.),bothinthebulkwaterandonthepipesurfaces(Amblardetal.,1996;Blocketal.,1997;Berryetal.,2006).Thebiomassattachedtothepipesurface,knownasbio lm,isaparticularlysensitiveconcern.Indeed,mostofthebiomasspresentinthedrinkingwaternetworkislocatedatthepipewalls(Flemmingetal.,2002).Moreover,theaccumulationofwaterbornepathogensindrinkingwaterbio lms,whichmaypromotetheirsurvivalorgrowth,isamainissueforpublichealthanddrinkingwaterdistributionsystemmanagement.

Suchmicroorganismscanenterthesystemsthroughbreaks,leaksandinsuf cienttreatment(Westrelletal.,2003).Partitionbetweenbulkandsurface,andpipewalladhesionofthemicroorganismsofinterest(Escherichiacoli,Bacillusatrophaeus,Legionella,Mycobacterium,Cryptosporidium,viruses,etc.)havebeenrelativelywelldocumented(Daillouxetal.,2003;Fassetal.,2003;Westrelletal.,2003;Langmarketal.,2005;Lehtolaetal.,2007;Szaboetal.,2007;Helmietal.,2008).However,thebio lmnevercompletelycoversthewall(Martinyetal.,2003;Parisetal.,2007)andtherelativecontributionofthedrinkingwaterbio lmitselfversustheuncolonizedwallintrappingparticleshasnotbeendocumented.Furthermore,thedistri-butionoftheparticlesadheringtothesubstratumhasnever

*Correspondingauthor.Tel.:þ33(0)383685243;fax:þ33(0)383275444.E-mailaddress:jean-claude.block@pharma.uhp-nancy.fr(J.-C.Block).1

´environnementdurablesEst,rueLucienCue´not,siteSaint-JacquesII,BP51005,54521Maxe´villecedex,Presentaddress:IPLsante

France.Tel.:+33(0)383503690;fax+33(0)35036

2.Probing young drinking water biofilms with hard and soft particles

2.Probing young drinking water biofilms with hard and soft particles

99.

0043-1354/$–seefrontmatterª2008ElsevierLtd.Allrightsreserved.doi:10.1016/j.watres.2008.10.009

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